Print to Speech
Instruction is organized by letter patterns and begins with a letter and the instructor teaches one corresponding sound for that letter.
Instruction typically begins with phonological awareness, progressing to orthographic knowledge, and ending with morphological knowledge in later stages of instruction.
Entry points are typically limited with same instructional program and sequence for all.
Teacher Imparts Knowledge
Students are told how our language system works.
Man-Made Conventions for Printed Words
A great deal of attention and instructional time is allotted to marking vowel and consonant letters within a word to determine where to break a word into syllables based on its visual patterns.
Sight words are introduced, practiced, and assessed separately as whole words.
Practice with decoding nonsense words.
Look, Say, Write
Not Typically Included
Hand Movement Associated with Sounds
For example, ‘tapping’, ‘pounding’, ‘bumping’ fingers or hands to represent sounds or syllables; ‘finger spelling’ used to represent sounds and then letters; ‘simultaneous oral spelling’, or saying letter names with simultaneous writing of corresponding letters, is taught.
Includes Tactile Experiences
Tactile experiences may include modeling letters with clay and writing in sand or on bumpy surfaces.
Students are directly taught specific language patterns and expectancies.
One Core Meta-Cognitive Strategy
Instruction typically emphasizes one core strategy—break words into syllables.
Available in a series of levels, which are generally sold separately.
On average, a complete core program costs $3,000.
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